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Unit module






Preliminary Geoengineering Sketches
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In the first slide, forced artificial upwelling from 100m depth results in a nutrient-rich surface plume that accelerates surface photosynthesis, resulting in a drawdown of CO2. But detritus size is small and much of the CO2 never crosses the 100 year horizon (where CO2 return to the atmosphere takes 100 years).










In the second slide, fractal habitat niches are created, resulting in multiple trophic levels, and a rain of larger fecal sediment that is effective in biological pump action of CO2 from the atmosphere to the oceanic abyssmal plains, where at least some lithification takes place.







Fractal character to the habitat is created for example by deploying floats that serve as living islands, are made of a slow-release nutrient composition with suitable buoyancy, and are colonized by plants and animals.






The north pacific gyre at the western vortex (the "garbage patch" is an ideal site for deployment. Plastic debris provides added habitat and will sink as it is encrusted with living organisms.




The basic method involves an array of vertical buoys in a web. At full scale, sufficient carbon is drawn down as form a thermostat for control of atmospheric CO2 levels. Actual drawdown is measured and validated by a submerged instrument package with particle counter (as calibrated from net capture biomass).








The unit module is a 100m spar buoy formed of ferrocement or aluminum with a tubular hollow body dimensioned for a pumphouse and instrumentation and is ballasted.











Buoyancy is variable, and may be adjusted by displacing water from the internal water column below the failsafe headseal.

Variable displacement is controlled by pumps as shown below.















Shown here is a pendant grid with instrument package for measuring particle density in deadfall from the installation.  Strain on tensile members 204 is minimal due to the dampening effect of the spar buoy.













In this figure, a diaphragm is used to pump deepwater up and release it at the surface.  The negative headpressure for pumping is relatively small, a few feet at most, but to pump large volumes the piston or diaphragm element must be scaled for KL/min.













The unit modules are submersible to below the turbulence layer in the event of large swells or ship traffic.  With design care, ships of the Panamax class can be accommodated.













Networks of spar buoys are tested.  Struts of the network are designed to be stiff but elastic so as to absorb and dampen a requisite level of harmonics in the spar bouy vertical motion.












Consideration is given to using wave energy to generate electricity for pump adjustment of buoyancy.










Passive pumping is also considered, using wave action to impel water to the surface from larger submerged draft tubes.  Here the negative head pressure that must be overcome for pumping is essentially zero.









Flex tubes with check valves may provide passive pumping action. 











In another embodiment, pumps are used to force air to about a 10m depth, and release of the air results in airlift of water to the surface, drawing deep water from draft tubes suspended to a 100m depth.

A variety of configurations for eductive airlift pumping of deep water may be used.











A variety of configurations for eductive airlift pumping of deep water may be used.










Structural support is a major issue due to the constant motion of the sea.  Previous efforts to support free-standing draft tubes have not fared well.  Here modified tensegrity structures are used to convert loads to a mix of vectored compressive and tensile loads.  The structure is modular to allow replacement of worn parts. 











Here the spar buoy itself is used to draw water from below the photic zone.  The buoy may be floated into place before being ballasted and pressurized.  Ferrocement may be engineered to last hundreds of years in the ocean environment.
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